Mental Capacity

Mental Capacity

Brain injuries often result in severe or life-changing injuries. In many cases, early medical intervention, treatment and rehabilitation can help injured individuals make a full or near-full recovery. However, sadly, in other cases, brain injuries can result in ongoing cognitive difficulties which prevent the individual from being able to live independently or make their own decisions. In such cases, a loved one will often step in to make decisions on their behalf.

A person’s ability to consider and make decisions about their own life, activities, welfare, and financial affairs is called mental capacity. Under the law, everyone is assumed to have mental capacity and there are strict tests to establish when a person needs someone else to make their decisions for them.

We understand how challenging it can be to care for someone recovering from a brain injury and to know when someone needs help making a decision. Mental capacity can be difficult to assess as it often fluctuates and may vary depending on the type of decision the affected individual needs to make.

At IBB Claims, our sensitive and highly experienced head and brain injury solicitors can help you explore options to support a loved one who lacks mental capacity. Our aim is to alleviate the burden upon you as much as possible and our solicitors are members of Headway the Brain Injury Association with specialist skills supporting clients who have suffered brain injuries and their loved ones.

Our expertise includes providing advice on mental capacity assessments under the Mental Capacity Act 2005, Court of Protection applications to make decisions on a person’s behalf, and helping clients access rehabilitation and support services.

We can also help you make a personal injury claim on your loved one’s behalf where the head injury was caused by the negligence or intentional act of someone else. We’ve been awarded the Law Society Personal Injury Accreditation.

To speak to one of our head and brain injury solicitors, give us a call at our offices, email us at, or fill in the enquiry form at the top of the page.


Make a confidential enquiry

Please enter your name
Please enter your email address
Please enter your telephone number
Please select the nature of your enquiry
This is used to ensure your enquiry is dealt with as effectively as possible
Please enter the verification code

We’ll only use this information to handle your enquiry and we won’t share it with any third parties. For more details see our Privacy Policy

What does mental capacity mean?

Mental capacity is the ability to make a specific decision at the time it needs to be made. The decision can concern anything, from the ability to choose what to buy during the weekly shop, to paying bills and managing finances.

A person lacks mental capacity when they lose the ability to make decisions. This could be short-term incapacity – for example, if the affected individual is temporarily loses consciousness after a head injury – or long-term incapacity, for example, if the individual has sustained permanent brain damage. Capacity can fluctuate. It can also depend on the decision which needs making. For example, a person may be able to choose if they want to make a brain injury compensation claim but can’t make decisions about money.

A person who lacks mental capacity may be unable to:

  • Sign important legal documents
  • Sell property
  • Make a valid Will
  • Care for themselves or go about day-to-day activities
  • Consent to or refuse medical treatment

The Mental Capacity Act 2005 (the MCA) is in place to protect and support people who lack mental capacity and their loved ones. Under the Act, all people aged 16 or over are assumed have mental capacity unless an assessment proves otherwise. The MCA also states:

  • You should help the affected individual make their own decision wherever possible
  • An “unwise” decision does not necessarily mean a person lacks mental capacity
  • All decisions made on behalf of an affected individual should be in their best interests
  • Any care and medical treatment provided to someone lacking mental capacity should be the least restrictive to their rights and liberty

Mental capacity assessments

Under the MCA, mental incapacity can be assessed using a 2 stage test:

  1. The affected individual must have an impairment of the mind or brain, for example, as the result of a brain injury which can produce cognitive, behavioural, and emotional issues
  2. The impairment must make the affected individual unable to make a specific decision when they need to make it

A person cannot make a decision where:

  • They don’t understand the information needed to make the decision or what making the decision means
  • They cannot retain information to make the decision
  • They cannot weigh up information to come to an informed decision
  • They cannot communicate their decision

Helping people make decisions

Before deciding whether someone lacks mental capacity, they should be helped to make the decision themselves wherever possible. For example, by:

  • Presenting information in a different way such as using visual aids
  • Ensuring the affected individual has all the information they need
  • Providing alternative options for them to consider
  • Exploring alternative communication methods such as using signs or non-verbal cues
  • Inviting other family and friends to help communicate with the affected individual
  • Ensuring the affected individual is in a location where they feel comfortable and safe
  • Delaying the decision until the person is able to make it themselves

Making decisions in someone’s “best interests”

If a person lacking mental capacity cannot make their own decision even with assistance, it may be necessary to make a decision on their behalf.

Under the MCA, all decisions should be made in the incapacitated person’s best interests. This includes:

  • Encouraging them to take part in the decision-making process as much as possible
  • Considering the factors they would have taken into account if they were making the decision themselves
  • Thinking about their wishes, beliefs, and values prior to their loss of mental capacity
  • Talking to their family, friends, Attorney (under a Lasting Power of Attorney or Enduring Power of Attorney), and care team about the person’s wishes, beliefs, and values
  • Avoiding discrimination – don’t make a decision based on the person’s age, behaviour, or appearance

Deprivation of Liberty

Liberty is a human right so it’s very important that a decision made on behalf of someone else interferes with their freedom as little as possible. Where a decision is made, it should be the “least restrictive” option.

Sometimes it may be necessary for someone (generally a care home or hospital) to make decisions which restrict or control a person’s activities and movements. However, they must apply to their local authority for authorisation under the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards.

If Deprivation of Liberty is not approved, any restrictions or control on the person will be unlawful and can be challenged in the Court of Protection.

Our mental capacity solicitors understand it’s a daunting task to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of making a specific decision for someone without interfering with their human rights. We can provide guidance on decision making, including finding the least restrictive option.

The Court of Protection

The Court of Protection was created to protect and support individuals who lack mental capacity and their loved ones. The Court can make decisions on behalf of incapacitated individuals; it can also authorise their family and friends to make decisions on their behalf.

We can help you make all types of application to the Court of Protection, including:

  • Deputyship applications – Court of Protection Deputies are authorised to make decisions about care, medical treatment, and welfare and/or financial affairs and property
  • Statutory Wills – where a person lacks mental capacity, they will likely be unable to make a valid Will (called lacking testamentary capacity). The Court of Protection can therefore make a Will on their behalf to prevent the incapacitated individual dying intestate (and their money and property being distributed against their wishes)
  • Selling jointly owned property – because people lacking mental capacity often cannot sign legal documents, they will likely be unable to consent to the sale or equity transfer of any property you jointly own with them. The Court of Protection can therefore appoint someone to consent to the sale or transfer on their behalf
  • Deprivation of Liberty orders and challenges – the Court of Protection can authorise Deprivation of Liberty where the incapacitated person does not live in a care home or hospital. You can also apply to challenge Deprivation of Liberty authorisations

Applications to the Court of Protection are complex, requiring a number of forms including expert evidence to support the mental capacity assessment. Our skilled solicitors have considerable experience making these applications on clients’ behalf and can explain how the process works in clear, understandable English.

For further information, please visit our Court of Protection Solicitors page.

Why choose IBB Claims’ mental capacity solicitors?

At IBB Claims we specialise in helping clients who have been received a personal injury as a result of the negligence or intentional actions of someone else.

We provide a full solution service covering compensation claims, rehabilitation guidance, and ongoing support and advice, including advising on mental capacity and Court of Protection applications. Every brain injury is unique, so we’ll work closely with you to fully establish your needs and the best ways to support you and/or a loved one.

Amongst our specialist team we have Malcolm Underhill who has been recognised as an Accredited Brain Injury Specialist by the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers. He and Simon Pimlott are both members of Headway the Brain Injury Association and have completed academic study into brain injuries and their consequences with Headway in partnership with Northampton University.

You can therefore trust that your case will be dealt with professionally and sensitively by someone with true understanding of the far-reaching effects brain injury can have on your life.

Get in touch with our mental capacity solicitors

To speak to one of our head and brain injury solicitors, give us a call at our offices, email us at, or fill in the enquiry form at the top of the page.

  • Malcolm Underhill
      • 01895 207972
      • View profile
  • Simon Pimlott
      • 01895 207236
      • View profile
  • Jacqueline Almond
      • View profile
  • Salima Mawji
      • View profile
  • Justin Govier
      • View profile
  • Caroline Dunne
      • View profile
  • Celia Whittuck
      • View profile
  • Neelam Chauhan
      • 01895 207240
      • View profile
  • Nerys Dadey
      • 01494 790041
      • View profile
  • Rachel Green
      • 01895 207230
      • View profile
Meet the team
  • No WinNo Fee
  • FREE initial consultation
  • Help with rehabilitation